Ability of a subject to be the carrier of social and cultural values and make a basis of their esthetic value. Material definiteness, sensual concreteness and natural properties of subjects is natural and natural material of the esthetic. Thanks to socio-historical practice subjects and the phenomena are involved to the sphere of interests of the person and find public properties, the "sensual and supersensual" nature, the value for mankind, i.e. the esthetic beginning, the esthetic properties.
First, subjestive-objective the relations fully correspond to understanding of value only as importance of object for the subject whereas in the second and third options the concept of value joins norms (has to, the purposes and ideals. Within the subject's attitude towards object they are already inexplicable especially as are criteria of the similar relations.
Platon, according to the concept of independently existing ideas, formulated the doctrine about inspiration in which claimed about the nature esthetic as about "shadows of shadows", i.e. about reflection of things (shadows of ideas).
The esthetic - metacategory, i.e. broad and fundamental category of an esthetics. It reflects that general that is inherent fine, ugly, sublime, low, tragic, comic, drama, etc. characteristics of life and art. In the history of esthetic thought there were five theoretical models esthetic.
The third approach, directly unites the initial bases of two first. In it values are defined as the importance and an ideal of the modern. This concept was developed by V.P. Tugarinov and O. G. Drobnitsky's works and also within the subjestive-objective relations. Such restriction is not casual as all three concepts consider specifics of values from a Marxism position as economic materialism that at once caused a number of difficulties.
The main esthetic antinomy (the fine - useful; the fine - is useless grabs real discrepancy of human activity which, though has pragmatical and utilitarian character, includes also the esthetic beginning.
As opposed to it humanists of Renaissance (Leonardo da Vinci, Shakespeare) approved beauty of the nature and pleasure of her perception. They considered art as a mirror which the artist holds before the nature.
The French educators of the XVIII century (Voltaire, Diderot) broaden the sphere of beauty again and return it to all reality. For them fine - natural property of the nature, same, as weight, color, volume, etc.
The esthetics (Greek aisthetikos - concerning sensory perception), studies sensual valuable estimates by the individual of objective reality and their subsequent reproduction in verbal and nonverbal means of reception - information transfers.
For Pythagoreans the world - harmonous space, "all sky - harmony and numbers". The beauty for them is harmonious. Harmony acts where there is an inequality, unity of the diverse. Equal and consistent does not need harmony. In the same place, where contrasts are in "proportional mix", the benefit of the person there. The beauty acts as a measure of a harmony, the validity of life, accord to space.
V model (dialectic materialism): it represents in the "public" concept, according to which esthetic - the objective property of the phenomena caused by their correlation to life of society, mankind universally significant in the phenomena. This concept gives the chance to explain the nature esthetic, proceeding from the uniform basis.
In this literature it is possible to allocate three main approaches and to determination of specifics of initial axiological categories. The first and the most widespread is the understanding of value as importance of subjects and phenomena of reality for the person, their ability to satisfy his material and spiritual needs. Most consistently this concept is submitted in works of V.A. Vasilenko and his supporters. Its main shortcoming consists in data of value to means of satisfaction of requirements, i.e. as a matter of fact, to usefulness as positive importance. So become actually indiscernible and value as the importance, and its object carrier because of what in the concrete analysis the concept of value is transferred, as a rule, to this natural or social object.